VIRUSES are so small that it is even difficult to even see to microscope. Viruses, they usually attack body cells and uses its cellular to function and reproduce.
Test for virus or its antigen, antibodies presence and other viruses are done in virology laboratories, though not all viruses can be tested. Viruses can only be grown in laboratories when they are provided with cells to invade. Most cells do invade the same target cells, supporting growth of different viruses, though not all viruses can be grown in laboratory. Viruses very slow growth does delay the detection which would influence patient care. After cultivating their growth, the next move is to identify the viruses.
After the virus invades the targeted cells, it will infect cells, reproduce and cause infection. The four stages are:
- Enter the host cell by targeting the cells, the virus attaches itself to a specific cell, invade and ingest it .Antibodies blocks the viral attachment by covering the viral surface.
- Viral Increase itself upon entering and invading the cell, invades and releases the nucleic acid into the host cell, altering the cells’ function. This results in production of thousands of new viral progeny within the target cell.
- New Viruses Spread as the progeny viruses escape the host cell by several mechanisms forming another kind of virus, secreted by host cells or escapes by bursting the cell. When freed, the new viruses enter other cells, causing and spreading infections.
- Viral Infection can create the following :
- Cells are damaged or kill infected cells.
- Persistent infection without damaging itself, invade and increases inside the host cells. It spreads infection by moving cells to cells leaving the infected cells intact.
- Normal cells sometimes transform into cancer cells by virus.
- Stimulus triggers and multiplies invaded cells that have been dormant.
Viral Infection Immunity
Immunity are either natural or acquired do have differences in their defences.
Natural immunity is a mechanism used to defend ourselves against organism we have not contracted before. It also provides important defences against infection and when virus attacks the body.
Granuloma an accumulation of two types of white blood cell – Lymphocytes a type of white blood cell regulates natural response by stimulation macrophages, another type of white blood cell, to ingest and kill mircrobes.
Lymphocytes also known as cytotoxic cells are natural killer cells, as they are able to differentiate between normal and killing only the infected cells, whose cell surfaces changes due to virus.
Acquired immunity is a mechanism using acquired vaccination against a particular infection by organism, supplementing natural immunity.
Antibodies prevents infection by reacting with antigen, invades the virus, provoke immunity respond. The antibodies cover the viruses that are attacking the host cell and neutralise the virus preventing the spread of viral.
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs) recognises the viral attachment on the cell surface during infection, kills the infected host.
It is always advisable to seek doctor’s consultation and prescription for any infection as not necessary all antiviral medication is able to treat several viral infections.